Women who do not fulfil the requirements of the optimal woman, and are thereby detrimental and often fatal to men, both literally and figuratively, are amply depicted in the bible. Reflective of patriarchal fears of potential ruptures in its hegemony the bible reconstitutes the characteristics of mythology's Pandora into the Christian Eve, discussed above, and the Jewish Lilith and, more generally, the personality traits of the Sirens, Harpies and Furies within Jezebel, Salome, Delilah and Judith.
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They embody the prerequisite qualities of the femme fatale's selfish and predatory greed and curiosity, her sexual aggression, and her retributive drives. These women are assertive, independent, self willed individuals whose refusal to acquiesce to Christian authority validates their depiction as heretical evils who are not to be emulated. Jezebel 1 and 2 Kings is a Phoenician princess married to King Ahab. She incites her husband to sin against God through her devotion to the 33 Phoenician god Baal and her desire to suppress the worship of Yahweh.
Her disregard for Israelite custom and her ruthless use of power make her a formidable adversary of the prophet Elijah. As retribution, Jezebel is pushed from a window and physically decimated by the populace. In the Gospels according to Mark and Matthew Salome is identified only as the daughter of Herodias. Salome requests the head of the imprisoned John the Baptist on a platter at her mother's prompting. Herodias desires the death of the Baptist because he has condemned her marriage to Herod, her first husband's brother.
In later interpretations, because Salome is the sexually provocative instrument leading to the saint's death, she is deemed responsible for her mother's motives and for Herod's overactive hormones. Although the Christian bible fails to provide a truly demonic female figure, Lilith of traditional Judaic legend possesses what might be considered monstrous qualities. In cabalistic myth, she is the first wife of Adam who is created separately from him. She is considered to be the first feminist in that she challenges Adam's authority as head of the household, and leaves him because he is too stubborn to compromise.
Then, according to legend, God attempts to make up for the fiasco by creating Eve from Adam's rib so that there will never be any doubt as to man's superiority over women. Arguably, Lilith's exclusion from the Christian tales and the Judaic transformation of Lilith info a demon says a lot more about male fears of a truly self sufficient woman than it does about male supremacy. Other treacherous biblical women include Delilah Judges and Judith. While Delilah, having discovered the secret of Samson's great strength, cuts off the seven locks of his hair in order to betray him to the Philistines who 34 then gouge out his eyes, Judith captivates Holofernes with her beauty and then decapitates him.
The negative delineation of each of these biblical femmes fatales combined with the clear pronouncement that fertility is the answer to spiritual salvation indubitably situates women in an oppressive and subordinate position. The enduring ideological power of the Church as expressed through the bible will impact on all future Western generations and will eventually help to inform cinematic representations of women. The patriarchal indoctrination of much of Occidental civilisation, though thorough, requires intermittent refortification at various pressure points in the historical continuum; the emergence of feudalism and later of capitalism as the major social and economic base structures of the Medieval and industrial worlds are two such stress spots.
Morgan Le Fay. Nimue Although its institutional control was threatened throughout the Middle Ages, the Church's doctrines were nonetheless maintained by various institutional and representational means. The manorial system's fusion of the Roman estate economy of late antiquity with the German system of property 35 ownership both favoured the owner's complete authority over property and people provided the preconditions for the development of feudalism.
Because feudalism was a system based primarily on land and involved a hierarchy of authority, rights and power that extended from the monarch downward, the former free peasants became serfs of the large land owners and were therefore no longer subject to control by an overt form of central authority. Therefore, increased ideological control became necessary as the feudalistic system became the main form of social stratification in Medieval Europe. The second half of the Middle Ages experienced the advent of the modern world's institutions.
Large scale transportation and communication were reestablished and made possible the establishment of great cities and the production of goods for exchange rather than for local consumption. Due to these advancements and their subsequent creation of a prosperous middle class of merchants and artisans, the Church lost much of its temporal authority to secular rulers although it continued to provide the Medieval world with the sort of structure that the Roman Empire had previously supplied.
Feed the piggy by liliththecenobite Lilith the cenobite t
Furthermore, it was still quite able to disseminate its ideological biases, and therefore maintained its more subtle, yet more manipulative, control through various other means. Though eventually unsuccessful, the politically motivated Crusades of , in which Christians from Western Europe stormed the East under the guise of religious duty, were nonetheless useful in spreading the doctrines of the Church.
The enforcement of the death penalty for heretics under the Papal Inquisition begun in in both Germany and France and the sale of Indulgences in the Late Middle Ages were both rather extreme, though effective, methods of institutionalised religious control.
These historical manoeuvres were ideologically fortified by the emergence of the stories of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. As 36 some of history's most enduring myths and legends, these tales quickly became and today remain part of the collective unconscious e.
The various versions of the Arthurian tales, produced at different moments in Medieval history, promoted connected, though slightly specified, ideological doctrines in accordance with the specific needs of the socio-historic environment. Geoffrey of Monmouth's creation of the historical, fifth century warrior figure of Arthur in his History of the Kings of Britain coincided with the need to promote the warrior spirit of the Crusades. Chretien de Troyes composition of his great ehivalric courtly romances between and , which sanctioned a system of chivalry prowess, loyalty, generosity, courtesy ,and courtly love devotion to the ideal of womanhood, abject humility, complete loyalty, and veneration of his beloved was derived from the socioeconomic environmental needs of feudalism.
Spanning from A. According to Troyes the grail was most probably a mythic food producing vessel. In Robert de Boron's completion of Troyes' unfinished Perceval fifteen years later it became the vessel of the Last Supper used to catch Christ's blood. This transformation of the grail from a mythic container which produced food for sustenance into a Christian chalice which provided spiritual nourishment was undoubtably influenced by the continued religious zealotry of the Crusades.
Lilith and other stories of Femme fatale
Malbrv's Le Morte D'Arthur was once again concerned with the ideals of Medieval chivalry, especially religious chivalry, which promoted piety, temperance, chastity, adherence to the Church first and to the king second and was particularly concerned with the veneration of the 37 Virgin Mary. Coming at the very end of the Middle Ages and hovering on the doorstep of the Age of Transition, this reversion to ideals of contained and benevolent femininity was possibly a reflection of patriarchal fears of the rapidly changing socioeconomic environment.
Various crises, including the alteration from barter to a money economy and the beginnings of early capitalism, the decline of the patriarchal feudal system because of the change from labour services to rents, and the challenge to the patricians for control of the city, all demanded a restabilisation of patriarchal mores and boundaries. As manifestations of male fears of possible fissures in its domination, the Arthurian tales recycle mythological and biblical female stereotypes whose character traits can be located in Guinevere, Morgan Le Fay and Nimue.
Their eventual destruction or resituation within acceptable perimeters is an attempt to negate their initial power and illustrate the error of their, and all independent women's, ways. Though Guinevere is not entirely evil, her barrenness and adulterous love affair with Lancelot is societally destructive in that it causes the breakdown of the predominantly male round table. As a redemptive measure she becomes a nun helping to illustrate the Christian belief in female self-sacrifice to male institutional authority. Nimue, also known as the Lady of the Lake, Nina, Niviene and Vivian either bequeaths Excalibur to Arthur and later receives it back from him or enchants Merlin with spells he has taught her and sometimes even kills him.
Yet behind all of her personae, Nimue is a powerful Goddess figure who has far more control over either Merlin or Arthur than is acceptable. She becomes obsessed about her physical appearance and uses charms learned from Merlin to keep herself young looking.
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Morgan is also associated with the aggressive, warmongering, lustful, Celtic battle goddess Morrighan. Although the Medieval period's Arthurian tales are not as rich or as complex in their representations of femmes fatales as those of classical mythology or of the bible, they nonetheless continue to reflect an ongoing male fear of the independent and powerful female.
And, as usual, the ideological struggle within patriarchy to maintain control over female sexuality in Medieval times is perpetuated by negatively delineating possible liberated womanhood.
Biblical and Medieval Reincarnations. It is not surprising that she emerges in almost overwhelming numbers in the mid to late nineteenth century, considering the increased population, and the technological, social and political shifts of the era: These various, though connected, disturbances in the cultural fabric play havoc with the stability of male domihancy. During the nineteenth century there were great advancements in technology which fostered a materialistic viewpoint, developed bourgeois modes of life, and made possible the creation of large imperialistic states.
After the Enlightenment, the face of the world was shaped by the Industrial and various political revolutions. The political revolutions replaced the feudal state 39 with a democratic class society which allowed for the establishment of forms of government based on freedom from the influence of the state, freedom of property, free competition and trade, and guarantees of personal liberty and political equality. Emanating from England, and initiated in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by the development of new instruments for observation and measurement in collusion with the advancement of technical processes, tools and instruments, the Industrial Revolution replaced existing methods of production and made possible mass production for a world-wide market.
These technological and scientific advances, concomitant with the legal and social emancipation of the individual, capitalistic industrialization and the massive increase of population in Europe, the population expanded from approximately 69 million in to million in changed the material, social and intellectual conditions of life fundamentally and irrevocably. One of the effects of the Industrial Revolution was "the economic rise to power of the middle classes, which was an integral feature of the development of the mercantile-industrial society of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, while creating new wealth, also created a new pattern for social relationships [ There was indeed a significant change in the status of women in the later part of the nineteenth century.
In Britain, the issue of votes for women was raised in the British Parliament in , John Stuart Mill's publication of The Subjugation of the Rights of Women drew attention to women's iniquitous social position, and the Married Women's Property Act, passed in , established minimum legal rights for the wife, independent of her husband Bade, The first cervical cap was invented in Germany by Friedrich Adolphe Wilde in In Holland, the first birth control clinic was 40 opened in Greer, In the United States women were also achieving some semblance of equality by the s, a far cry from her lack of legal, professional or educational standing in the s.
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's battle for women's suffrage and other reforms during much of the s, an increase of women in the labour force due to changing demographic and industrial patterns, the admission of a woman into a medical school and into a law school in , the founding of Radcliffe Harvard , Barnard Columbia , Vassar and Smith as women colleges within the major male universities in the late s, and the s creation of the National American Women's Suffrage Association NAWSA , Daughters of the American Revolution DAR , and the National Council of Women all contributed to the perception that women's appropriation of male privileges was somehow nullifying male power.
Not everything was progressing in favour of female emancipation and equality. The fact that the legal system still deemed it necessary to maintain control over women's reproductive functionings is evidenced in Congress' passing of the Comstock law in which banned the dissemination of pornography, abortion devices, and "any drug, medicine, article, or thing designed, adapted, or intended for preventing conception" Banner, It is curious that pornography was lumped together with reproductive controls.
This was, of course, reinforced by the Church who, then as now, stood in opposition to contraception or women having control over their own sexuality and reproductive functions. The publication of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical theories in the early s perpetuated the falsity that "women could attain emotional stability only through domesticity and motherhood. Women who worked denied their deepest needs and risked being unable to experience love or sexual satisfaction. This, in turn, threatened the family, and, according to the 41 most apocalyptic thinkers, the whole of Western civilisation" Banner, As with the other periods discussed above, ideological renegotiation of the possible rupture in the stable functioning of the patriarchal infrastructure was disseminated through the period's cultural products.
The turn of the century witnessed an unprecedented plethora of femmes fatales in literary and visual art forms. Typically, images of the fatal female were complemented by the vast numbers of nineteenth century conventional mother and child images. According to Bram Dijkstra in Idols of Perversity, to the turn of the century male, the femme fatale was "perfectly representative of the New Woman who, in their eyes, was seeking to arrogate to herself male privileges, refused the duties of motherhood, and was intent upon destroying the heavenly harmony of feminine subordination in the family" His painting, "in which, like withered, dry leaves, these nasty women, with nonexistent children gnawing like an evil conscience at their uselessly voluptuous breasts, are seen twisting and turning in the wind, caught in the sterile branches of barren trees, mere empty shells of what they might have been had they not forsaken their sacred duties of motherhood to pursue their lascivious private pleasures" Dijkstra, 94 was generally interpreted as "a warning to the 'new woman' desiring an independent life, freed from the shackles of marriage and motherhood.
It] tells of the punishment inflicted on women who deny their biological role of motherhood" Bade, By refusing to be oppressed by her biology, the sexually independent and assertive female is able to acquire the means of economic and, subsequently, political power within a democratic society. The woman who does not see her primary task as the production of new life, of children, is seen 42 to be "cheapening the paradise of her warm womb and making it into a cold Pandora's box of economic evils" Dijkstra, Therefore, non-maternal female sexuality evidenced by women's small but important gains over their own bodies and reproductive rights instils an irrational fear in the collective male psyche regarding his position at the top of the power structure.
There is a slight increase in the level of nastiness of the fin de siecle's depictions of the femme fatale compared with those of mythological, biblical or Arthurian tales. Figures like Judith or Salome who were only marginally evil in their original incarnations become doubly monstrous in their nineteenth century reincarnated forms. In many of her fin de siecle manifestations the femme fatale is often depicted as synonymous with death. It is possible that this is due in part to the fact that, in addition to women's advancements in social, political and economic arenas, men also literally felt threatened by women sexually.
In the later part of the nineteenth century, economically independent and sexually promiscuous women were generally prostitutes, many of whom carried fatal pulmonary and venereal diseases. Because the men of the time could veritably be annihilated through a business transaction with one of these ladies, it was interpreted as yet another reason why women should not have economic or sexual freedom. Additionally, sterility was now also negatively associated with prostitution because many of these ladies were rendered barren due to the effects of some of the venereal diseases.
And once again the female rather than the male is held responsible. Moreover, there was a population fluctuation due to the effects of industrialisation which was combined with the need for even larger numbers of male workers in order to keep up with production. Previously, men had always managed to maintain the upper hand in this sexual imbalance via some form of polygamy.
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Reflective of the social mores of Greek and Roman Classical Antiquity, the mythic tales depicted the goddesses and mortal women as forever being raped and impregnated by the gods which contributed to a constant repopulation of the planet. In the bible, as mentioned above, men were encouraged to mate with another woman if their primary wife could not conceive in order to perpetuate the family line.
In chivalric times adulterous romance was one of the basic codes of Medieval courtly love. But, by the turn of the century, because monogamy was the only socially acceptable practice, men now felt threatened by women who, because they held the upper hand in the sexual imbalance, were envisioned as excessively predatory.
The fin de siecle's obsession with women as head hunters exposes this male fear of emasculation and castration. The image of the femme fatale in so much of the literary and visual work of this period is also aligned with the image of women engaged in narcissistic, autoerotic, self sufficient activities or images hinting at lesbianism, masculinised women and Amazons. All of these portray the negative effects of viragous females entering into the realm of male supremacy.http://danardono.com.or.id/libraries/2020-02-10/lepu-phone-locate.php
The Evolution of Lilith :: Lilith Essays
Women who do not conform to the ideal of womanhood, epitomised in the figure of the femme fatale, and reflected in such figures as Delilah, Judith, Lilith, Pandora, Salome, Sirens, Harpies, and Furies are considered to be traitors to humanity and are depicted as such. As with all previous manifestations, these fin de siecle femmes fatales are negatively delineated as arrogant, predatory, unmerciful and erotically overwhelming.
Delilah is a popular fin de siecle femme fatale and is realised in painting, sculpture, Camille Saint-Saens' opera, and in literature by Sacher-Masoch who alludes to her by name in the sadomasochistic classic 44 Venus in Furs In each of these depictions, Delilah's dominating and emasculating capabilities are emphasised. Judith is represented in verse and prose, in sculpture and in paintings by more than half a dozen prominent artists including Gustav Klimt and Frank von Stuck.